Key Pillars of Decarbonisation for short terms results
….(from p64) Achieving the rapid reduction in CO2 emissions over the next 30 years in the NZE requires a broad range of policy approaches and technologies (Figure 2.12). The key pillars of decarbonisation of the global energy system are energy efficiency, behavioural changes, electrification, renewables, hydrogen and hydrogen‐based fuels, bioenergy and CCUS.
2.5.1 Energy efficiency
Minimising energy demand growth through improvements in energy efficiency makes a critical contribution in the NZE. Many efficiency measures in industry, buildings, appliances and transport can be put into effect and scaled up very quickly.
As a result, energy efficiency measures are front-loaded in the NZE, and they play their largest role in curbing energy demand and emissions in the period to 2030. Although energy efficiency improves further after 2030, its contribution to overall emissions reductions falls as other mitigation measures play an expanding role. Without the energy efficiency, behavioural changes and electrification measures deployed in the NZE, final energy consumption would be around 300 EJ higher in 2050, almost 90% above the 2050 level in the NZE (Figure 2.13). Efficiency improvements also help reduce the vulnerability of businesses and consumers to potential disruptions to electricity supplies.
…. In the industry sector, most manufacturing stock is already quite efficient, but there are still opportunities for energy efficiency improvements. Energy management systems, best‐in‐class industrial equipment such as electric motors, variable speed drives, heaters and grinders are installed, and process integration and optimization options such as waste heat recovery and process controls are exploited to their maximum economic potentials in the period to 2030 in the NZE. After 2030, the rate of efficiency improvement slows because many of the technologies needed to reduce emissions in industry in the NZE require more energy than their equivalent conventional technologies. The use of CCUS, for example, increases energy consumption to operate the capture equipment, and producing electrolytic hydrogen on‐site requires additional energy than that needed for the main manufacturing process. p66 ….